Saint Vincent de Paul, Priest

Vincent de Paul (Vincent Depaul) was born on 24 April, 1581, of a Gascon peasant family in Pouy, in the south-east of France. He went to a Franciscan school in Dax and graduated in theology at Toulouse University.  He remained in Toulouse until he went to Marseilles to collect an inheritance. On his way back from Marseilles, there is a story he was taken seized by Turkish pirates and brought to Tunis where he was sold as a slave.  But, after converting his ‘owner’ to Christianity, he was freed in 1607, though some doubt the veracity of this event.

Vincent was ordained priest at the unusually early age of 19.  He began his priestly life as a court chaplain and was supported by the revenues of a commendatory abbey but his life changed following a false accusation of theft. In 1609, he was associated with Pierre (later Cardinal) de Berulle and became tutor to the children of the Gondi family.  In 1617, he was made parish priest of Chatillon-les-Dombes.  All during his life he combined an apostolate among the well-off upper classes with an utter devotion to the care of the poor and oppressed.  While chaplain with the Gondi family, he gave help to prisoners condemned to work on galley ships, and in 1622 preached missions to prisoners in Bordeaux.

Vincent is probably best known for the two religious congregations he founded. In 1625, he set up a congregation of priests.  They lived from a common fund and renounced all church honours.  They devoted themselves to serving Catholics in the smaller towns and villages.  The purpose was to restore a more flexible apostolate among the diocesan clergy.

In 1633, they were given care of the Paris priory church of Saint-Lazare.  From this church the congregation came to be known as ‘Lazarists’.  Because of their founder they are also known as Vincentians, although the official name is the Congregation of the Mission (CM). Also in 1633, Vincent founded the Daughters of Charity (Filles de Charite).  They were the first congregation not to live in cloister so that they could devote themselves entirely to the poor and the sick.

Vincent said that their cloister was the street. In this he realised the original idea of Francis de Sales, whose congregation had been made to follow a more traditional religious life by Rome. In this venture, Vincent was aided by (St) Louise de Marillac, who was the first superior.  Together with Louise de Marillac, Vincent organised hospitals for the sick poor, founded institutions for abandoned children, opened soup kitchens, created job training programmes, taught young women to read, improved prison conditions, and organised countless local charities in the villages throughout France.

It is said that, even during his life, Vincent became a legend. Every level of society – clergy and laity, rich and poor, outcasts and convicts – all were won over by his charisma and selfless devotion.  Here was a man totally guided by his love for God and neighbour.

Rich women collected money and in other ways supported his countless good works. He gave alms for war-victims in Lorraine, sent his priests to Poland, Ireland, and Scotland (even the Hebrides).  From 1643, during the regency of Anne of Austria, who greatly admired him and valued his advice, he had considerable influence in her court.  The one exception was when he tried to persuade her to dismiss Cardinal Mazarin. He was also very aware of the dangers of Jansenism, to which he was strongly opposed.

He died on 27 September, 1660 at the age of nearly 80 and was canonized by Pope Clement XII in 1737. Pope Leo XIII named him patron of all charitable societies.  Among these is the lay movement called the Society of St Vincent de Paul, which was founded in 1833 by Frederick Ozanam.

Both the Vincentians and the Daughters of Charity are found today in many parts of the world.  The Irish Vincentians sent many priests as missionaries to English-speaking parts of the world, especially Britain, Australia and the US.

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